Unexplained infertility (UI) among women consists of only 10-17% of infertile females. Unexplained or idiopathic infertility is a condition, in which couples are not able to conceive without any definite causes. The presence of the decidual immune system (innate or adaptive) is essential for a successful pregnancy and fertility that is mediated by T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper, CD8+ CD28− T, and regulatory T cells, as well as autoantibodies such as antiphospholipid antibody, antithyroid antibody, antiovarian antibody, cytokines, and chemokines. Therefore, altered proportions or levels of the mentioned compartments of the adaptive immune system may cause pregnancy failure and infertility, especially in UI. Consequently, a deep understanding of immunological compartments in females with UI may help us to define the causes of this disease with regard to immunology. This review will discuss immunological factors, including cellular, molecular components, and transcription factors that are involved in the etiology of UI.