Unmetabolized Folic Acid Is Detected in Nearly All Serum Samples from US Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Unmetabolized Folic Acid Is Detected in Nearly All Serum Samples from US Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Abstract

Background: Serum total folate consists mainly of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF). Unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) may occur in persons consuming folic acid–fortified foods or supplements.

Objectives: We describe serum 5-methylTHF and UMFA concentrations in the US population ≥1 y of age by demographic variables and fasting time, stratified by folic acid–containing dietary supplement use. We also evaluate factors associated with UMFA concentrations >1 nmol/L.

Methods: Serum samples from the cross-sectional NHANES 2007–2008 were measured for 5-methylTHF (n = 2734) and UMFA (n = 2707) by HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: In supplement users compared with nonusers, we found significantly higher geometric mean concentrations of 5-methylTHF (48.4 and 30.7 nmol/L, respectively) and UMFA (1.54 and 0.794 nmol/L, respectively). UMFA concentrations were detectable (>0.3 nmol/L) in >95% of supplement users and nonusers, regardless of demographic or fasting characteristics; concentrations differed significantly by age and fasting time, but not by sex and race-ethnicity, both in supplement users and nonusers. The prevalence of UMFA concentrations >1 nmol/L was 33.2% overall and 21.0% in fasting (≥8 h) adults (≥20 y of age). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, UMFA concentrations >1 nmol/L were associated with being older, non-Hispanic black, nonfasting (<8 h), having smaller body surface area, higher total folic acid intake (diet and supplements), and higher red blood cell folate concentrations. In fasting adults, a decrease in the mean daily alcohol consumption was also associated with increased odds of UMFA concentrations >1 nmol/L.

Conclusions: UMFA detection was nearly ubiquitous, and concentrations >1 nmol/L were largely but not entirely explained by fasting status and by total folic acid intake from diet and supplements. These new UMFA data in US persons ≥1 y of age provide much-needed information on this vitamer in a fortified population with relatively high use of dietary supplements.

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