What Is Cardiovascular Disease?
Heart disease, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and congenital heart disease, is the leading cause of death for men and women in the U.S. Cardiovascular Disease also encompasses high cholesterol, high triglycerides and hypertension. Prevention includes quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, controlling high blood pressure, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising.
1. CVD & Low Folate Intake
Studies have suggested MTHFR C677T plays a role in the development of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in populations with low dietary folate intake. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine the association between MTHFR, folate and CVD related outcomes in a population with no mandatory folic acid fortification.
Results showed the MTHFR genotype was not associated with hypertension, dyslipidaemia, stroke or all-cause mortality. Those with the MTHFR 677TT genotype were found to have a higher risk of Ischemic Heart Disease.
2. High Homocystiene with Hypertension
The authors Wang et al (2014) studied the ability of MTHFR C677TÂ to predict high homocysteine in Chinese patients with hypertension. Overall, the 677TT genotype was consistently associated with higher homocysteine across the group, with the increase averaging 51%. The authors conclude that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms could be usedÂ screening marker for severely high homocysteine.
3. MTHFR C677T & Coronary Artery Disease
Saffari et al (2013) studied the effect of the MTHFR C677T on high homocysteine levels and therefore coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the presence of C677T and total homocysteine were studied in a group patients with CAD. While homocystiene levels were found to be higher in the CAD study group, the study did not find an increased prevalence of the MTHFR C677T mutation in the CAD group when compared to controls.
4. C677T, A1298C, Hypertension & Hypertension in Pregnancy
Yang et al (2014) wished to uncover the role of both the C677T and A1298C mutation in relation to hypertension (H) and hypertension in pregnancy (HIP). Results showed the C677T mutation was associated with both H and HIP in Asain and Caucasian populations, with the A1298C mutation no proving to show links with these disease states.
5. Gene Mutations in CVD
Patients with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) were screened by Oztuzcu et al (2014) for the presence of 6 different gene polymorphisms relating to CV health, including MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations. C677T homozygous and heterozygous mutations (TT and CC) were found in 9.34% and 41.09% of patients respectively, with the A1298C homozygous and heterozygous mutations found in 13.78% and 44.94% of patients. Of all screened, no genetic mutation was found in only 1.95% of subjects. This research highlights how vital the screening of genetic mutations for the diagnosis and potential treatment of CVD.